Process innovations’ adoption can affect farmers’ profitability from different sides: an increase of output yields, a better output quality level (and hence selling price), a lower production cost ceteris paribus. Such effects can occur one by one or even jointly.
From an agronomic point of view biostimulants use can represent a process innovation resulting in either a yield increase (being constant the other production factors e.g. fertilisers, water, plant protection products, etc), a higher quality level of the products (e.g. higher marketable quality and nutritional value), or a cost reduction due to a lower inputs’ requirement resulting from a positive effect of biostimulants on inputs’ use efficiency.
Available literature at international level demonstrated several positive effects of biostimulant application on both arable crops and protected cultivations, as shown by the metanalysis carried out by Coletta (2019). Those analysis focused on scientific contributions investigating the effects of a single biostimulant product (excluding experiments where a combination of treatments may result in a difficult identification of a significant effects of a single tested bio-stimulant product), and tried to quantify economic implications for crops cultivated in experimental trials adopting similar agronomic practices used in standard open field cultivation, showing a general positive effect ascribed to the use of biostimulants on yield in several crops.